Published online: 2018-03-04
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.003
There is an urgent need for new antimicrobial and therapeutic strategies to deal with the ever evolving antimicrobial resistance among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens. Infections due to virulent bacteria remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite progress in antimicrobial therapy, primarily because of the increasing of antimicrobial resistance levels among such group of bacteria. Despite significant advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of infection due to these organisms, there are only limited strategies to prevent infection. Recently it was reported that SkQ1, triphenyl phosphonium-based mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and antibiotic, effectively kills all tested Gram-positive laboratory strains including of Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium sp. Moreover, SkQ1 demonstrated effectiveness towards Gram-negative strains too, except Escherichia coli. The mechanism of the bactericidal action of TPP-based antibiotics could be also described by its ability to suppress bacterial bioenergetics by collapsing membrane potential through activation of protonophorous uncoupling. To this date, there are no reports of resistance to SkQ1 among Gram-positive strains; therefore, triphenyl phosphonium-based antibacterial agents would be effective towards planktonic and sessile cells of clinical resistant strains.
Published online: 2018-01-25
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2017-06-12
In this work we explore the temporal dynamics of cytokines in Dark Agouti rats with experimentally induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The main group consisted of 11 animals who were injected with 100 μl (per leg) of spinal cord homogenate obtained from random-bred rats and combined with incomplete Freund’s adjuvant to the hind footpads. The control group included 7 animals who received 100 μl of normal saline mixed with incomplete Freund’s adjuvant. Blood samples (500 μl) were collected daily, starting from day 1 through day 7. We ran a Bio-Plex-based multiplex cytokine assay on the samples using the Bio-Plex Pro Rat Cytokine 24-plex Assay kit. EAE in rats was shown to simulate progression of multiple sclerosis in humans in terms of temporal dynamics of lymphoproliferative and hematopoietic factors IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-7. The studied model satisfactory imitates the dynamics of factors stimulating migration of lymphocytes, monocytes and other immune cells, including IL-17, RANTES (CCL-5) and MCP-1 (CCL-2) but excluding GRO/KC (CXCL1), which shows a different dynamics. The model also resembles patterns of human multiple sclerosis in terms of factors affecting cytotoxic and apoptotic reactions, including IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-17, but excluding TNFα.
Published online: 2018-02-16
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.001
Recent studies of T-cell clonal repertoires of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have led to the discovery of AS-associated T-cell clones with a highly homologous T-cell receptor structure. The role of T-lymphocytes in the disease progression cannot be elucidated without analyzing the diversity and abundance of functionally different T-cell clones found in patients with AS. Using a state-of-the-art technique for T-cell repertoire profiling based on massively parallel sequencing, we, for the first time, studied the T-cell receptor repertoire of activated T-cells from the peripheral blood of a patient with AS. We have demonstrated that a subpopulation of CD38+HLA-DR+ T-lymphocytes is highly diverse both in terms of clonal diversity and abundance of the identified clonotypes, suggesting diverse antigen specificity of the activated peripheral blood T-cells. Most of the activated T-cell clonotypes had low abundance in total population of peripheral blood T-cells. In the repertoire of activated T-cells we have found the clonotype TRBV9_CASSVGVYSTDTQYF_TRBJ2-3, previously discovered in AS and reactive arthritis, and a few other clonotypes of cytotoxic and helper T-cells that may have a role in promoting inflammation in AS patients. Presence of the AS-associated clonotype in activated T-cell subset suggests that the T-cells might play an active role in ongoing inflammation during the disease progression. This provides rationale for further research of their antigen specificity and role in triggering or maintaining AS.