Published online: 2019-08-20
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2019.053
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects both elderly people, for whom it is one of the main causes of disability, and people of active working age and is an urgent clinical and social problem of resistance of pain syndrome to therapy. The disease is characterized by both destruction of intra-articular and paraarticular structures, such as subchondral bone. While OA is an important sign of pathological changes believe the bone marrow edema (BME). This work examines the effect of BME on development osteoarthritis, and therapeutic approaches to the management of patients with OA. The aim of the study was to develop a method of treatment of BME in OA of the knee joint by locally intraosseous injection of autologous thrombotic-rich plasma (PRP) into the edema zone. In this study 17 patients with the diagnosis: Osteoarthritis II-IV Grade. according to the classification of Kellgren–Lawrence, in which areas of local inflammation in the form of BME were detected on MRI in the subchondral zone in accordance with the international classification of WORMS (Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score). The mean age of patients was 41,7 ± 14,3 years, 10 of them were women and 7 men. Patients were treated with autological platelet-rich plasma under x-ray control injected from extra-articular intraosseous access in the area of BME. Evaluation of effectiveness of treatment performed by VAS, WOMAC and KOOS scales, before the introduction of autoplasma, after 1 and 3 months after the start of treatment. Three months after the manipulation, there was a statistically significant decrease in the intensity of inflammatory syndrome: for WOMAC by 17.5%, for KOOS by 19.4% and for VAS by 33,1% (p < 0,01). Thus, the efficiency of intraosseous Infiltration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of patients with OA, accompanied by edema of the bone marrow in the subchondral zone, was proved.
Published online: 2019-08-18
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2019.052
Chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP) is a disease associated with low susceptibility to the therapeutic protocols applied; practitioners tend to characterize it as a disease presenting certain difficulties. Therefore, the search for drugs and methods capable of increasing the efficacy of CGP therapy is an ongoing process. Additional problems, which have to do with either with antibiotic resistance or increased sensitivity to drugs, also occur quite often. This study aimed to assess the possibility of applying hirudotherapy in the context of conservative treatment of CGP. 50 patients with CGP without somatic pathology were examined and treated. The participants were divided into two groups (n = 25), all group members of about the same age. At the first stage, the treatment followed the accepted standard: professional oral hygiene procedures, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs, demonstration of proper personal oral hygiene routines. Then, first group went through a monthlong hirudotherapy course that consisted of 6 to 8 individual procedures. Second group was observed throughout this period with the aim to control the level of their compliance with the oral hygiene routines they were trained. Having analyzed the results, we found that hirudotherapy was more effective than what was prescribed to the second (control) group. The papillary marginal alveolar index (PMA), which reflects the severity of inflammation and gum bleeding, decreased significantly in the first group, where medicinal leeches were used: in the patients with severe CGP it went down by 6%, in those with moderately severe CGP the index decreased by 24% and the participants whose CGP was only light had the PMA go down by 2%. Thus, we have demonstrated the efficacy of hirudotherapy in the context of conservative CGP treatment, which allows recommending this method for inclusion into clinical practice.
Published online: 2019-08-17
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2019.051
The number of children born with cerebral palsy (CP) remains stably high. Novel approaches for rehabilitation of such patients are being sought. This study aimed to define the efficiency of the image visualization technologies in play activity for the physical rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen boys with spastic diplegia aged 7–9 participated in the study. They were divided into treatment group (TG) and control group (CG), 8 children each. The TG patients were trained using the virtual reality based Krisaf training simulator twice a week for 40 minutes during 8 months. The child was suspended in the horizontal position and looked at the monitor through the specialised eyeglasses. Under the conditions of the marine environment immersion simulation with reduced gravity children performed motor tasks through play: searched for treasures, competed with dolphins etc. The CG patients attended the physical therapy lessons. Rehabilitation lessons using the virtual reality based Krisaf training simulator for children affected with spastic cerebral palsy led to a significant improvement of motor skills. Various motion tests showed an improvement over baseline, the average indicators increased 1.30–1.48 times. The difference between TG and CG results was statistically significant. In the CG referred to physical therapy the indicators increase was less than 10%, in the TG the increase reached 30–40%. It was concluded that the use of virtual reality based technologies promotes the optimization of neurophysiological processes in the motor analyzer cortical areas and better adaptation to motor loads.
Published online: 2019-08-09
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2019.048
In recent decades, nucleic acid sequencing technologies used for metagenomic analysis have become the main methods for assessing the composition of microbiota. At the same time, the use of novel methods of cultivation and identification of microorganisms in microbiological research led to the renaissance of culture-based technologies, because facilitated the discovery and isolation of both new strains of well-known microorganisms as well as uncultivated and unexplored bacterial taxa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of using the culture-based method for the assessment of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the intestinal microbiota in healthy children. Eleven growth media were inoculated with serial dilutions of stool samples in order to analyze the profile of dominant anaerobic bacteria, as well as aerobic bacteria and fungi in 20 healthy children aged 2–4 years. The identification of microorganisms was performed using MALDI TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing were used. 1,819 isolated and identified strains belong to 7 phyla, 13 classes, 18 orders, 33 families, 77 genera and 149 species in the Bacteria domain. The Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla were most abundant and frequent. The greatest species diversity (more than 85 species) was found in the Firmicutes phylum. Ten new previously uncharacterized bacterial strains were isolated.
Published online: 2019-08-01
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2019.047
The low affinity of composite materials for the hard tissue of human teeth poses a challenge to restorative dentists. This study was undertaken to explore molecular and chemical characteristics of the interface between the dental cement, the buffer layer formed from a next generation biomimetic material that mimics the organic mineral composition of human enamel and dentin, and the intact native hard dental tissue. Seven plane-parallel dental slices were analyzed using synchrotron IR microspectroscopy. The obtained absorption spectra of functional molecular groups were organized into cluster maps. This allowed us to identify the intact tissue, the adhesive agent and the biomimetic layer at their interface and to localize and measure concentrations of functional groups involved in the integration of the biomimetic composite into the hard tissue of the human tooth. The proposed biomimetic material is based on nanocrystal carbonate-substituted calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized from a biogenic calcium source and a complex of basic polar amino acids copying the composition of the human tooth and can form a functional bond with hard dental tissue.
Published online: 2019-07-23
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2019.046
  The impact of excessive exposure to electronic devices (ED) on youth health remains understudied. There is a pressing need to develop recommendations for the safe use of stationary and mobile ED aimed at minimizing health risks. In this work, we assess the effect of ED on the physical growth and development of high-school and university students and provide recommendations for preventing the negative impact of prolonged screen time on health. The study recruited 460 high-school and 598 university students. Standard anthropometric measurements were taken. The psychological and emotional state of the participants was evaluated using the Test Anxiety Inventory by Spielberg (modified by Khanin). To estimate daily and weekly exposure to ED the participants were asked to fill out standardized questionnaires. In high school students, the average screen time was 7 h a day; in university students, 8.5 to 10 h a day. Only 60% of the participants, regardless of their place of residence or the type of educational institution they were attending, were physically healthy. We conclude that prolonged and frequent exposure to ED is one of the factors that can interfere with normal physical growth and development in youth. Regular daily use of stationary ED increases the risk of developing body weight deficit by 24% and gaining excess body weight by 10%. We recommend that students should eliminate computers, laptops and stationary ED from their daily activities for at least one day at the weekend and reduce total screen time to 3 hours a day.