Published online: 2018-11-10
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.057
Present day education routines subject schoolchildren to considerable loads associated with studying. This research effort aimed to study the effect attention switching physical exercises (the type peculiar to the mental arithmetic curricula) have on heart rate, adaptation abilities, stress resistance, higher mental functions and conditioned reflex activity of children. Examining 124 schoolchildren aged 7–9 and 10–12 years, we applied the pedagogical experiment method that includes benchmarking, formation and control stages, as well as a number of psychological methods: short-term, associative and image memory diagnostics; Bourdon-Wiersma test; search for logical solutions; evaluation of motor skills. Varicard 2.51 was used to assess functions of the cardiovascular system and other physiological state indicators. At the benchmarking stage, we discovered the differences in higher mental functions conditioned by age and gender. Girls aged 7–9 had their memory, attention, ideation indicators 20–40% higher than boys of the same age. Boys aged 10–12 had their higher mental functions developed 10–30% better than girls of the same age. At the formation stage, we registered the optimizing effect attention switching physical exercises have on information processing speed and memorizing effectiveness: corresponding indicators increased 1.5–2 times (7–9 y.o., both genders) and 1.2–1.5 times (10–12 y.o., both genders), accordingly. It was concluded that adding the attention switching physical exercises to mental arithmetic curricula makes training sessions more effective.
Published online: 2018-11-08
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.056
The growing incidence of nutrient-related diseases is a global challenge. The aim of this work was to study consumption of staple food products and to estimate the incidence of nutrient-related diseases in Voronezh region. Food consumption was analyzed from the reports of the local branch of the Federal State Statistics collected over two 5-year periods (1995–1999 and 2012–2016). The incidence of nutrient-related diseases was estimated based on the reports providing information about patients’ visits to healthcare facilities. The districts of Voronezh region were assigned to 5 ranks. Over the studied periods, the population of Voronezh region considerably changed its diet: consumption of fish and seafood, fresh fruits, meat, vegetables, gourds and melons, eggs, vegetable oil, milk and dairy products per person increased significantly. At the same time, consumption of sugar, breads and potatoes still exceeds the recommended intake 1.42-2.04-fold, which means that the main component of the diet is carbohydrates. We observed a significant 4.5-fold increase in obesity incidence, a 1.8-2.0-fold increase in the incidence of anemia and endocrine disorders and a 1.2 increase in the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. In terms of prevention measures, the priority should be given to areas at a high risk of nutrient-related diseases.
Published online: 2018-11-04
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.055
Among the factors that have a strong impact on public health the environment, living conditions, food and water quality are just as important as socio-economic forces. Providing the population with access to safe potable water has become a socio-economic priority in Russia. The aim of this work was to characterize the aquifers supplying the population of Ryazan region with water for personal and domestic needs and to compare their chemical composition. Sample collection was performed in cooperation with the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology (Ryazan region). The obtained data were processed using ANOVA. The Kashirsky and Ozersko-Khovansky aquifers turn to be the most commonly used ones supplying water to 30.7% and 27.3% of the total artesian wells. The Oksko-Tarussky and Podolsko-Myachkovsky aquifers rank second, feeding 21% and 18.9% of the wells, respectively. The share of the Kasimovsky aquifer in the total water supply is only 2.1%. Although the recommended lifespan of an artesian well is 25 years, two-thirds of the wells in Ryazan region have been in service for 26 to 50 years, and one in every 4 wells is over 50 years old. The chemical composition of the groundwater drawn from different aquifers is different. High concentrations (0.7 mg/l) of iron (Fe2+) are present in the water from the Ozersko-Khovansky aquifer (р ≥ 0.05). Sulfates are found in abundance in the Podolsko-Myachkovsky and Ozersko-Khovansky aquifer. The water from the Oksko-Tarussky aquifer contains high concentrations of ionized ammonia.
Published online: 2018-10-20
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.054
To understand how vulnerable are a society, an economy and a state in the face of a biohazard, one should attempt to identify any potential holes in the national biosafety system, such as the lack of important components or technologies for biological monitoring and the inadequacy of existing analytical methods used to prevent or counteract biogenic threats. In Russia, biological monitoring is quite advanced. However, the agencies that ensure proper functioning of its components lack collaboration and do not form a well-coordinated network. Each of such agencies alone cannot provide comprehensive information on the subject. In the Russian Federation, there are at least 4 state-funded programs that collect epidemiological data and are quite efficient in performing the narrow task of monitoring infections. But because there is no central database where epidemiological data can be channeled and subsequently shared, these agencies do not complete each other. This leaves the Russian society, economy and state vulnerable to biogenic threats. We need an adequately organized, modern, fully functional and effective system for monitoring biohazards that will serve as a basis for the national biosafety system and also a tool for the identification and elimination of its weaknesses.
Published online: 2018-10-16
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.052
The editing of the CCR5 gene in the CD4+ T cell genome is an effective way of preventing HIV-1 proliferation. Very similar strategies can be used to protect the fetus of an HIV-infected female showing a weak response to antiretroviral therapy. Inducing the “natural” CCR5delta32 mutation in a zygote may guard the fetus against HIV infection both in utero and at birth. In this study, we optimize the CRISPR-Cas9 system to induce a homozygous 32-nt deletion similar to the naturally occurring CCR5delta32 allele in the human zygote at the S-phase. Edits were done in the abnormal tripronuclear zygotes unsuitable for IVF. Sixteen tripronuclear zygotes in the S-phase obtained from WT CCR5 donors were injected with an original CRISPR-Cas9 system designed by the authors. Upon injection, the zygotes were transferred into the Blastocyst (COOK) embryo culture medium and cultured for 5 days in a CO2 incubator until blastocysts were formed (approximately 250 cells). Eight zygotes that successfully developed into blastocysts were PCR-genotyped to analyze the efficacy of genome editing. Of 16 zygotes injected with CRISPR-Cas9, only 8 reached the blastocyst stage. PCR genotyping revealed the absence of the initial WT CCR5 variant in 5 of 8 blastocysts (100% CCR5delta32 homozygous). Two had about 3% and one about 20% of WT CCR5 mosaicism. This leads us to conclude that the efficacy of the proposed CRISPR-Cas9 system for the induction of the CCR5delta32 mutation in human embryos is very high producing more than 50% of completely modified embryos.
Published online: 2018-10-11
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.051
Mathematical modeling of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters essential for establishing correct dosing regimens is an alternative to pharmacokinetic studies (PKS) adopted in the clinical setting. The aim of this work was to compare the values of PK parameters for vancomycin obtained in an actual PKS and through MM in postoperative patients with kidney injury. Our prospective study included 61 patients (47 males and 14 females aged 60.59 ± 12.23 years). During PKS, drug concentrations at steady state Сtrough and Cpeak were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by the calculation of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve AUC24. For mathematical modeling, a single-compartment model was employed; PK parameters were estimated using R 3.4.0. The values of Ctrough measured 48 h after the onset of antibiotic therapy during PKS were significantly lower than those predicted by MM (р = 0.004). In a group of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), AUC24 measured at the end of treatment was significantly higher than its value predicted by MM (р = 0.011). The probability of achieving the target AUC24 to MIC ratio of over 400 μg•h /ml is higher in the group of patients with Ctrough = 10–15 μg /ml. Our findings confirm that the use of MM in postoperative patients with renal dysfunction is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring should be used instead.