Popularization of the real-time polymerase chain reaction method (RT-PCR), which is a trend of the recent years, allowed to significantly expand of the range of microorganisms that can be detected in the genitourinary tract of men. Moreover, the available picture of the microbiome's bacterial component structure became more detailed. Lactobacillus spp. remains one of the least studied groups of microorganisms. Treating patients with reproductive disorders, the authors have accumulated clinical experience demonstrating the possible relationship between presence of Lactobacillus spp. in the ejaculate and changes in the level of sex hormones and the key values registered with a spermogram. This study aimed to compare the levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, estradiol, prolactin, progesterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in blood serum and changes in spermogram values in 210 men with and without Lactobacillus spp. detected in their ejaculate. The treatment group included 105 men whose ejaculate had Lactobacillus spp. in the amount of (Lg) ≥ 103, as detected by RT-PCR. The control group included 105 men whose ejaculate did not have Lactobacillus spp. detected; the microbiome's bacterial component structure of their ejaculate was normal. Compared to the control group, treatment group had hormonal disorders registered more often: abnormal levels of three or more hormones (p = 0.04), hyperestradiolemia (p = 0.05), increased level of SHBG (p = 0.01). It was established that the presence of Lactobacillus spp. in the ejaculate of treatment group participants is associated with oligoastenoteratozoospermia (p < 0.01), decreased concentration of spermatozoa (p = 0.01), their decreased motility (p < 0.01) morphology abnormalities (p < 0.01). Thus, the presence of Lactobacillus spp. in the ejaculate can be interpreted as an additional marker of hormonal imbalance and fertility dysfunction in men.
Emergency surgery in the infectious diseases hospital is an urgent problem during the COVID-19 pandemic. Municipal Clinical Hospital No.15 named after O. M. Filatov has been providing emergency surgical care after conversion, from March 27, 2020 until now. The hospital’s medical staff has built up extensive experience: 194 surgical procedures were carried out in April, and 289 surgical procedures were carried out in May 2020. The paper reports the experience of emergency surgery at the stage of conversion to an infectious diseases hospital. Among all hospitalized patients, 482 (5.29%) people had acute surgical pathology requiring emergency surgery. Among patients who underwent urgent surgery, 472 (98%) people had the caused by COVID-19 community-acquired pneumonia of various degrees of severity. The paper discusses some features of acute surgical pathology and complications identified in patients with COVID-19. The surgical care features in the hospital after conversion are proper epidemiological regime implementation, minimization of the number of staff in the operating room, possible minimization of the number and reduction of the duration of surgical procedures. The most important challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic is medical staff safety.
 Transition to distance education in spring 2020 led to the overuse of information and communication technologies by the participants of the educational process. The aim of this study was to characterize the patterns of using electronic devices in high school students, their parents, and teachers in the settings of traditional brick-and-mortar education and distance learning. We created online questionnaires that were used to survey 200 high school students, 389 teachers and 251 parents before the transition to distance learning and also 658 teachers and 500 parents after the transition. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student’s t test, χ2, and Pearson’s contingency coefficient; relative risks were calculated using fourfold contingency tables. Differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0,05. After the transition to distance learning, the number of electronic devices used by each student increased for 96.6% of the surveyed students; the average screen time also increased. About 80% of the surveyed parents reported that their children had more health complaints; of them, 60% reported symptoms typical of computer vision syndrome. We established a correlation between the readiness to cut down on screen time and the subjective assessment of vision as perfect or good by the respondents (Pearson’s contingency coefficient 0.3; p ≤ 0.05). Our study confirms the relative risk for subjectively assessing one’s vision as satisfactory or poor in individuals who use ED on a daily basis; the risk is 1.13 for students, 1.41 for parents, and 1.27 for teachers (p ≤ 0.05). The study proves that eliminating screen time from daily activities for at least one day per week is an effective measure for preventing vision disorders.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic condition characterized by disturbed carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and often complicated by psychoneurological symptoms, including anxiety, depression, memory deficit, and asthenia. Most studies of pharmacotherapy candidates for NAFLD focus on the ability of the tested drugs to restore the biochemical functions and morphology of the liver while their potential effects on the co-existing conditions remain overlooked. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of empagliflozin and L-ornithine L-aspartate (OA) on behavior, memory, and physical performance in C57BL/6 mice with experimentally induced NAFLD (6 months of a Western diet + weekly carbon tetrachloride injections). The disease affected animal behavior (locomotion speed decreased by 38% and 35%, p < 0.01; rearing increased by 432% and 279%, p < 0.05 etc.), induced long-term memory deficit (latency to find the target box increased by 108% in the Barnes maze, the number of errors increased by 439%, p < 0.05), and compromised physical performance (swimming time in the forced swim test dropped by 50%, p < 0.05 etc.). When administered during the high-calorie diet period, both drugs reduced anxiety (empagliflozin: the number of grooming bouts rose by 160%, p < 0.05 and 2173%, p < 0.01; time spent in the light compartment in the light/dark box test increased by 275%, p < 0.05, etc.; OA: time spent in the open arms of the maze increased by 267%, p < 0.05), and promoted memory retention in mice with NAFLD. OA improved physical performance (swimming time in the forced swimming test improved by 106%, p < 0.05, etc.). Thus, empagliflozin and OA can have a beneficial effect on cognitive functions, as well as behavior, and ameliorate asthenia in NAFLD.
Microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MICCAP: OMIM 614261) is a severe monogenic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive manner caused by mutations in the STAMBP gene. There are less than 20 published cases of the syndrome to date. The paper reports three new cases of rare MICCAP syndrome. The cause of the disorder was confirmed in three affected individuals from two unrelated families by pedigree analysis, biochemical analysis, RFLP analysis and automated Sanger sequencing. The two brothers were homozygous for the potentially pathogenic STAMBP gene variant c.188A>G (p.Tyr63Cys). Clinical phenotype of the girl from the second family resulted from the combination of two genetic disorders: galactosemia caused by the compound heterozygosity for the pathogenic GALT gene variants (c.563A>G and c.855G>T), and MICCAP caused by the STAMBP gene variants (c.204-5C>G and с.668_669delCA), one of which originated de novo. The prevalence of microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome in Russia is evaluated, it is one per 120,000 people (CI: 1/356 724–1/62 691). The carrier frequency is one per 173 people. The target STAMBP gene analysis makes the genetic confirmation of the MICCAP syndrome quicklier. When determining the tactics of diagnosis and therapy in each particular case, the possibility of combination of two rare genetic disorders in one patient should be considered.