ISSN Print 2500–1094    ISSN Online 2542–1204
Bulletin of RSMU
BIOMEDICAL JOURNAL OF PIROGOV UNIVERSITY (MOSCOW, RUSSIA)

NEW ARTICLES

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) exerts multidirectional effects in the setting of essential hypertension (EH). There is a mounting body of evidence refuting the postulate about identical STAT3 signaling in cardiomyocytes and endothelial/smooth muscle cells, which is important in the situation of extended exposure to gp 130 ligands (LIF in particular). At the same time, there are no reports on the circadian dynamics of peripheral blood LIF concentrations and possible secondary changes to the pathophysiological effects of this cytokine. This study aimed to analyze the circadian dynamics of LIF concentrations in the peripheral blood serum measured at 5 different time points in patients with stage II EH in the presence/absence of antihypertensive therapy and their relationship with the frequency of complications developing within a 5-year follow-up. Blood serum LIF was measured in 60 patients with stage II EH using ELISA at 8:00, 14:00, 20:00, 2:00, and 8:00 o’clock before putting the patients on antihypertensive therapy and one year after its onset. The identified patterns of diurnal LIF concentrations (a rise by ≥15% at 20:00, p < 0.001; a further rise by ≥22% peaking at 2:00, p < 0.001 relative to the values at 8:00) can be regarded as pathologic; their persistence after one year of antihypertensive therapy is a sign of EH progression and puts the patients at 6-fold risk for cardiovascular complications, including myocardial infarction and acute cerebrovascular events.
VIEWS 52
In 2018, a few sequencing studies were published revealing the existence of two monophyletic clusters within the C. diphtheriae species, meaning that this species can be divided into two subspecies: C. diphtheriae subsp. diphtheriae and C. diphtheriae subsp. lausannense. The objective of our study was to describe the genotype and the phenotype of 2 nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae strains isolated in Russia in 2017–2018, which were classified by us as C. diphtheriae subsp. lausannense based on the aggregated data yielded by a variety of techniques, including microbiological and molecular genetic techniques, as well as a bioinformatic search for subspecies-specific genes in the publicly available genomes of C. diphtheriae. The isolated strains had morphological and biochemical characteristics of C. diphtheriae. The strains were assigned to the MLST type ST199 included in the clonal complex associated with subsp. lausannense. PCR revealed that both analyzed strains of C. diphtheriae subsp. lausannense carried the ptsI gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase and did not carry the narG gene encoding the synthesis of nitrate reductase subunits, whereas the strains of C. diphtheriae subsp. diphtheriae had the narG gene and did not have ptsI. We experimentally proved the ability of lausannense strains to ferment N-acetylglucosamine. Our findings expand the knowledge of the biological diversity of C. diphtheriae and indicate the need for estimating the spread of these microorganisms in Russia, as well as their pathogenic potential.
VIEWS 80
Ovarian neoplasms can develop at any age, carry a high risk for malignant transformation, reduce the reproductive potential of a woman and are an indication for surgery. The search for optimal screening algorithms for ovarian tumors is still ongoing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of ultrasonography (US) features in differentiating between benign, malignant and borderline tumors in reproductive-age women. We examined 168 reproductive-age women with ovarian masses who underwent surgery in 2012–2015 and compared the results of histopathological examinations with pulsed-Doppler US findings. We did not establish a correlation between the size/volume of the tumor and their morphological structure. We identified the echotexture characteristics associated with malignancy, including the presence of a solid component (р < 0.001); septations (р = 0.029) and projections on the internal surface of the tumor capsule (р < 0.001); moderate or significant buildup of free fluid in the small pelvis (р = 0.007), and the nodular surface of the tumor capsule (р = 0.008). Solid ovarian masses were at increased (31.69-fold) risk of transformation into malignant or borderline tumors, whereas for a mixed (cystic and solid) type the risk of such transformation increased 3.46-fold. We also identified Doppler parameters that can clearly discriminate between benign and malignant growths, including the blood flow rate in the tumor over 1.85 cm/s (р = 0.007) and RMI over 0.16 (р = 0.013). The sensitivity and specificity of our diagnostic model are 87% and 68%, respectively, with a probability threshold of 0.3.
VIEWS 93
Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prediabetic patients is a pressing concern due to its increasing prevalence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preventive pharmacotherapy in delaying progression of incident impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) to T2DM. The participants of the study (1,136 subjects) found healthy by a regular annual checkup underwent repeat screening for T2DM. Blood samples were processed following the guidelines for good preanalytical sample preparation. Patents with incident IGT/IFG were prescribed medication therapy with metformin or/and acarbose. The rate of IGT/IFG conversion to T2DM was evaluated in years 3 and 10 of observation. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders were detected in 18.5% (n = 210) of the re-screened patients: 5.0% had T2DM, 5.5% had IGT, 8.0% had IFG. Patients with incident T2DM were prescribed blood sugar lowering therapy and they were excluded from further analysis. Patients with IGT/IFG (n = 151) were given recommendations on lifestyle modification and prescribed metformin (77%) or a combination of metformin and acarbose (23%). Three years after the start of observation, the rate of conversion to T2DM was 6.8% in patients undergoing monotherapy with metformin and 11.4% in patients undergoing combination therapy with metformin and acarbose. After the active follow-up phase was over, the majority of the patients (n = 85) decided to discontinue preventive therapy without consulting their physicians. Ten years after the active follow-up phase, the rate of NGT/IFG conversion to T2DM was 38.8% in patients who had discontinued their treatment and 0% in patients still taking metformin (р < 0.01). Long-term therapy with metformin prevented progression to T2DM in the long run in 83.3% (р < 0.05).
VIEWS 106

POPULAR ARTICLES

Glaucoma is one of the main causes of irreversible blindness in the Russian Federation and it is the leading cause of visual impairments among working age population. The primary goal of glaucoma therapy is to preserve the visual function, which is mainly achieved through persistent normalization of IOP by instillation of hypotensive drugs, laser therapy and/or surgery/ In this clinical study safety and efficacy of a glaucoma surgical technique implying valve cyclodialysis ab externo with implantation of a non-absorbable collagen implant (NACI) (Xenoplast, Dubna-Biofarm, Russia) in the supraciliary space were evaluated. All patients exhibited moderate and severe primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The efficacy assessment criterias were intraocular pressure (IOP) dynamics, use of hypotensive medications, need for repeat surgical intervention and complications. A total of 26 patients (26 eyes) were operated upon and under observation. Twelve months after surgery, 34% IOP decrease from the baseline level was observed: from 29.5 ± 6.8 to 18.8 ± 4.3 mmHg. The amount of hypotensive medications used reduced from 2.8 ± 0.9 to 0.6 ± 0.9. Applying the criteria recommended by the World Glaucoma Association, complete success was registered in 73.1% of patients and partial success — in 26.9% patients. No surgery ended in a failure through the follow-up period. Post-operatively, one patient developed hyphema, 2 patients had some blood elements in aqueous humor and 1 patient had shallow anterior chamber (AC). The suggested surgical technique proved to be an efficient and safe way to decrease IOP and reduce the number of hypotensive medications and had a minimal number of complications associated with the surgery, therefore it can be recommended as a method of choice in patients with advanced stage POAG.
VIEWS 420
Mechanisms of maintenance of immunological memory in the chronic course of seasonal allergic rhinitis remain poorly understood. The detailed understanding of these mechanisms is required for design of new approaches for allergy treatment. It is known that the level of allergen-specific IgE antibodies (sIgE), which play a key role in the development of the disease, is increased in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis during pollination season. This study aimed to investigate the dynamics of serum IgE levels and characteristics of the clonal repertoire of IgE-secreting lymphocytes depending on the intensity of the patient's contact with the allergen. For three patients, allergic to birch pollen (22, 22, and 28 y.o.), we measured total IgE and birch pollen specific IgE levels at 6 time points with 2 week interval during the birch pollination season. Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) clonal repertoire data for several B-cell subpopulations at different time points were obtained for one patient. We observe growth of the sIgE level (91%, 37%, and 64% compared to the baseline) at the peak of pollination season in all three donors. Initial increase in sIgE and IgE levels coincides with the birch pollination initiation; sIgE and total IgE levels correlate with the birch pollen air level (sIgE: R2 = 0.98 at p < 0.05; total IgE: R2 = 0.95 at p < 0.05). We detected IgE clonotypes only in samples obtained during the birch pollination, which indicates an increase of IGE-expressing cells concentration during this period. The frequency of IgE clonotypes was extremely low compared to that of the clonotypes of other isotypes (IgE — 0.01%, IgM — 48.4%, IgD — 14%, IgG — 17.4%, IgA — 19.8%). Hypermutation and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences from the 13 detected IgE-containing clonal groups showed that these IgE clonotypes could originate from IgG as a result of sequential isotype-switching.
VIEWS 338
Dear researcher!
At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
Ivan PAVLOV On the Russian mind
In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.
2019-03-31 OUR NEWS
Update regulations - Fast-Track

Thanks to APC, we have significantly enhanced the work of the editorial board and are finally able to introduce a normal (international) fast track! For articles submitted after 01 Apr 2019, the editors promise to maintain the following time limit: editorial rejection - 3 days after submission, decision - 2 weeks after submission, online publication - 4 weeks after submission.

2018-12-01 OUR NEWS
All articles now a fee-based

In connection with the decrease in University support of the journal, from 2019 the journal will charge for all published articles (except for editorial reviews). Since 2019, the size of the fee will be: if source of funding indicated in the article - USD 700, if not - USD 400. New fee will be charged for publications received after 01/12/2018.