NEW ARTICLES

The causes of internal carotid artery (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA) dissection, as well as its provoking factors, remain understudied. The aim of this paper was to explore morphological changes in the ICA/VA walls, factors provoking dissection, clinical signs and biomarkers of connective tissue (CT) damage. A total of 271 patients were examined, of whom 54% were women. The mean age of the participants was 37.0 ± 10 years. Clinical signs and biomarkers of CT damage (matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, hydroxyproline, sulphated glycosaminoglycans) were analyzed in 82 patients and 40 healthy volunteers. Histologic examination of dissected and seemingly intact arteries conducted in 5 cases revealed signs of arterial wall dysplasia similar to those characteristics of fibromuscular dysplasia: thinning and splitting of the internal elastic membrane, areas of fibrosis, irregular orientation of myocytes, and their necrosis in the tunica media. Clinical signs and biomarkers of CT dysplasia (CTD) were more pronounced in patients with arterial dissection than in the controls. The major provoking factors were head turns and physical activity (42%), minor head injury (10%), and acute respiratory infection in the month preceding arterial dissection (14%). We conclude that arterial wall dysplasia is a predisposing factor for ICA/VA dissection, both spontaneous and provoked. The analysis of CTD biomarkers and clinical signs suggests connective tissue pathology in patients with ICA/VA dissection.
VIEWS 30
Currently, there are no criteria allowing to adequately assess composition and volume of the newborns' gut microbiota, which prevents early detection of the pathological processes and appropriate intervention. This study aimed to apply the methods of culturomics, proteomics and molecular genetic technologies to investigate the development of gut microbiota in healthy newborns delivered in the city of Moscow both vaginally and through a cesarean section. We examined 66 children, 33 of them delivered vaginally and 33 by cesarean section. The luminal bacterial flora samples were collected on the 1st, 7th and 30th days of life. There were 136 species of microorganisms belonging to 40 genera identified. We established that cesarean section slows down normal development of the gut microflora: through the follow-up period (1 month of life), gut microbiocenosis in such children did not yield the results on par with those registered in children born vaginally. Bifidobacteria were significantly more common in the vaginal delivery group: 84% of 109–1012 CFU/g versus 33% of 105–1012 CFU/g in the cesarean section group. At the same time, the former group had significantly less clostridia (33.3% and 65.4%, respectively) and lactose-negative Escherichia coli strains (2.4 and 19.4%, respectively) than the latter group.
VIEWS 47
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal recessive ataxia associated with the non-coding GAA tandem repeats expansion in the FXN gene. Transcription impairment and frataxin protein deficiency are the key features of the disease pathogenesis. Our research was aimed to study the FXN gene mRNA expression as well as to carry out the clinical, genetic and epigenetic correlation analysis in a group of patients with homozygous expansion, in a group of their relatives with heterozygous expansion and in a control group. The FXN mRNA level was determined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Methylation pattern of CpG sites was evaluated by direct bisulfite sequencing. As a result of the study, the threshold values were obtained between the FRDA patients group, the group of heterozygous carriers and the control group (15 and 79%, respectively). The clinical and genetic features comparison with the FXN expression level revealed no significant correlation. When comparing gene expression with an epigenetic profile, it was found that hypermethylation of a number of CpG sites upstream of the trinucleotide repeats and some non-CpG sites downstream of the region of repeats inhibited expression. Thus, the identified methylated sites may be considered as a target for epigenome editing to increase the FXN transcription and, consequently, for target therapy of the disease.
VIEWS 50
One of the methods of assessment of cognitive functions in patients with chronic ischemic cerebrovascular disease — CICD (dyscirculatory encephalopathy) implies studying connectivity of neural networks through the analysis of rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (rest fMRI) data. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between working memory (WM) characteristics and connectivity of various parts of the brain in patients diagnosed with CICD. The study involved 22 female CICD patients; they were divided into two groups, one with satisfactory level of WM and the other with compromised WM. We assessed intra-brain connectivity with the help of rest fMRI, using the SPM-12 and CONN18b software applications in Matlab platform. The other aspects evaluated were the gray to white matter ratio and the association of this indicator with WM. Significant differences in the intra-brain connectivity were registered in both the satisfactory WM group and the compromised WM group. The brain parts where those differences were found are left parahippocampal area and right supramarginal gyrus; right cerebellar hemisphere and left parietal, as well as left frontal areas; right cingular and left lingual gyri. In addition, we detected significant differences in the ratio in the gray and white matter volumes in both groups (p = 0.007). The results obtained indicate that memory deterioration in CICD patients is concomitant with deteriorating connectivity between the cortical areas, as well as between cerebellum and cortex, which may be associated with a more significant loss of the white matter.
VIEWS 43

POPULAR ARTICLES

Congenital core myopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogenous group of congenital myopathies that share a specific histopathological feature: areas of reduced oxidative activity in muscle fibers. The relationship between clinical, genetic and morphological characteristics of this group of disorders remains understudied. The aim of this work was to compare clinical presentations and morphological phenotypes of patients with congenital myopathies/myodystrophy to the data yielded by massively parallel exome sequencing. Eight children were included in the study: 2 boys and 6 girls aged 3 to 14 years. Their biopsy material was analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Sequencing was performed on HiSeq2500. Mutations were detected in 7 (87.5%) of 8 participants. Six children had 8 mutations in the genes associated with congenital core myopathies; one patient had 2 mutations in the LAMA2 gene implicated in merosin-deficient muscular dystrophy. The proportions of patients with mutations in RYR1 and SEPN1 were equal (42.86%). Of 10 detected mutations, 3 had not been previously described, including c.7561G>A in RYR1, c.485C>A in SEPN1 and p.Cys1136Arg in LAMA2. The clinical and morphological features of core myopathies suggest that genetic causes of this group of disorders should not be limited to RYR1 and SEPN1 genes only. This necessitates the search for and the study of other genes implicated in congenital myopathies or myodystrophy using state-of-the-art molecular genetic tools.
VIEWS 423
The problem of complications arising after dental implantation is still relevant. The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of various types of removable appliances and dental implants on the oral microbiocenosis during orthopedic treatment of 64 people: 12 patients of the first index group, 40 patients of the second index group and 12 people of the control group. 6 months after the implants were installed, as a result of a microbiological study of the oral cavity, the differences were found in the qualitative composition of the microflora of the mucous membrane around the neck of the dental implant. In the first index group representatives of normal microflora prevailed. In 100% of cases Streptococcus vestibularis was isolated, from more than half patients S. oralis, S. mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa were isolated, S. gordonii was isolated from one patient. In the second index group, a significant diversity of microbial species was observed, including enterobacteria, which were isolated from 22.5% of the examined patients. In the control group, in addition to representatives of the normal microflora of the oral mucosa S. vestibularis (75.5%), S. oralis (50.0%), Neisseria subflava (66.7%) and Haemophylus parainfluenzae (50.0%) were found. From all patients of the control groups S. gordonii was isolated, as well as the other potentially pathogenic streptococci species, S. anginosus and S. constellatus by 66.7%. The type of removable appliances and dental implants used affects the microflora composition of the oral cavity, and, consequently, the further prognosis and the risk of complications. Collapsible dental implant supported removable prosthetic appliances with a metal frame and fixing elements, telescopic crowns and clasps less than other types of prosthetic appliances change the qualitative composition of the microflora of the oral mucosa around the neck of the dental implant.
VIEWS 417
Dear researcher!
At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
Ivan PAVLOV On the Russian mind
In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.
2019-03-31 OUR NEWS
Update regulations - Fast-Track

Thanks to APC, we have significantly enhanced the work of the editorial board and are finally able to introduce a normal (international) fast track! For articles submitted after 01 Apr 2019, the editors promise to maintain the following time limit: editorial rejection - 3 days after submission, decision - 2 weeks after submission, online publication - 4 weeks after submission.

2018-12-01 OUR NEWS
All articles now a fee-based

In connection with the decrease in University support of the journal, from 2019 the journal will charge for all published articles (except for editorial reviews). Since 2019, the size of the fee will be: if source of funding indicated in the article - USD 700, if not - USD 400. New fee will be charged for publications received after 01/12/2018.