ISSN Print 2500–1094    ISSN Online 2542–1204
Bulletin of RSMU
BIOMEDICAL JOURNAL OF PIROGOV UNIVERSITY (MOSCOW, RUSSIA)

NEW ARTICLES

SARS-CoV-2 is a RNA coronavirus of the β-CoVs family responsible for the pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19). It is hypothesized that the viral genome of the contemporary predominant founder clones is likely to be evolving in geographic-dependent manner. Thus, strains of different origin may be characterized by different mutation patterns. The study was aimed to perform the mutational and phylogenetic analysis of the Russian SARS-CoV-2 genomes at different time periods and in various regions, as well as to characterize the mutational profiles of isolates using the bioinformatics approaches. The mutation accumulation was compared in 86 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequences from Russia and 220 from Europe and North America in order to reveal the characteristic gene variations, the possible positive selection patterns. Along with the known mutation variants in the structural proteins genes, typical for isolates of European origin, several additional mutations including the synonymous mutation in gene M (C26750Т) characteristic for Russian isolates were revealed. Double mutation R203K and G204R in the nucleocapside gene which previously emerged in Europe began spreading and rapidly (within a month) became the dominant form in Russia. The results obtained indicate that the viral genome of most Russian isolates evolves with accumulation of new mutations associated with increased viral transmission. Data on the SARS-CoV-2 genome specific mutation patterns might be used for the detection of the virus, as well as for tracking and controlling of its spread.
VIEWS 120
Demographic aging poses a challenge to the medical community, pressing for research into the biological factors promoting longevity and its features. Below, we look at the gut microbiota as one of such factors. The aim of this non-longitudinal study was to profile the gut microbiota of centenarians and to compare it with that of relatively healthy, younger Moscow residents. The study recruited 20 people aged 97–100 years (mean age 98 ± 1 year); the control group consisted of 92 individuals aged 53 ± 13 years. For each stool sample, the variable V3–V4 regions of the microbial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. Primary analysis, read filtering and taxonomic identification were conducted in the QIIME 1.9 environment; reconstruction of metabolic pathways was aided by PICRUSt. Statistical analysis was performed by means of Python v. 3.2. A few differences were detected between the gut microbiota of centenarians and younger individuals: Bifidobacterium (р = 0.026) and Coprococcus eutactus (р = 0.026) were more abundant in centenarians, whereas Bacteroides (р = 0.003) and Prevotella (р = 0.002) were better represented in younger participants. The potential for butyric acid synthesis was higher in the group of centenarians (р = 0.048). Surprisingly, the gut microbiota of centenarians was more diverse and surprisingly beneficial for advanced age. Besides, the gut microbiota of centenarians might have more pronounced anti-inflammatory potential due to its ability to better synthesize butyric acid.
VIEWS 101
It was demonstrated previously that neurorehabilitation with the noninvasive BCI-controlled robotic device combined with conventional therapeutic modalities resulted in significant motor improvement in children with cerebral palsy. However, EEG records were not analyzed in the previous study. The aim of this paper was to describe the reactivity patterns of the EEG α-rhythm during a series of 10 BCI-based neurorehabilitation sessions. The study was carried out in 32 boys and girls aged 10 to 18 years with right- or left-side hemiparesis. EEG was recorded from 21 electrodes at rest and during kinesthetic imagery of finger extension. During the first session, patterns of α-rhythm reactivity during motor imagery differed between patients with left- and right-side hemiparesis. The differences were statistically significant at Р2 during left hand movement rehearsal (F1, 30 = 5.10; p < 0.05). During the final session, the pattern of α-rhythm reactivity was different: synchronization was taken over by desynchronization at some electrode sites, suggesting increased activity of the neocortex. The most conspicuous EEG changes were observed in children with left-side hemiparesis (F20, 300 = 1.84; p < 0.05). By the end of the rehabilitation course, the differences between patients with left-and right-side hemiparesis became much less pronounced. Rearrangements in the EEG patterns in the α-frequency band can be regarded as signs of beneficial reorganization of neural circuits responsible for planning and executing complex hand movements.
VIEWS 130

POPULAR ARTICLES

Chronic endometritis (CE) in women of the reproductive age is associated with infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endometrial microbiota by means of real-time PCR in reproductive-age women depending on the morphological pattern of the endometrium. Using the Androflor real-time PCR kit, we analyzed endometrial aspirate collected from 23 patients with chronic endometritis, 30 patients with endometrial hyperplasia, and 19 healthy women. DNA of up to 9 groups of microorganisms was detected in all the analyzed samples in the amounts exceeding negative control. The total bacterial load (TBL) of the detected microorganisms was 103–106,4 (median 103,8) GE/ml. Lactobacillus spp. were detected the most often (86.1% of all samples). Opportunistic microorganisms (OM) were identified in 36.1% of all samples, including 22.2% of samples with lactobacilli and 13.9% — without lactobacilli. The variant of microbiota composition with Lactobacillus-dominance (more than 90%. in the TBL) was detected significantly less often in women with chronic endometritis compared to healthy women. Real-time PCR could be used for assessment of endometrial microbiota and allows us to determine its characteristics depending on the morphological pattern.
VIEWS 569
Dear researcher!
At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
Ivan PAVLOV On the Russian mind
In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.
2019-03-31 OUR NEWS
Update regulations - Fast-Track

Thanks to APC, we have significantly enhanced the work of the editorial board and are finally able to introduce a normal (international) fast track! For articles submitted after 01 Apr 2019, the editors promise to maintain the following time limit: editorial rejection - 3 days after submission, decision - 2 weeks after submission, online publication - 4 weeks after submission.

2018-12-01 OUR NEWS
All articles now a fee-based

In connection with the decrease in University support of the journal, from 2019 the journal will charge for all published articles (except for editorial reviews). Since 2019, the size of the fee will be: if source of funding indicated in the article - USD 700, if not - USD 400. New fee will be charged for publications received after 01/12/2018.