Published online: 2018-10-16
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.052
The editing of the CCR5 gene in the CD4+ T cell genome is an effective way of preventing HIV-1 proliferation. Very similar strategies can be used to protect the fetus of an HIV-infected female showing a weak response to antiretroviral therapy. Inducing the “natural” CCR5delta32 mutation in a zygote may guard the fetus against HIV infection both in utero and at birth. In this study, we optimize the CRISPR-Cas9 system to induce a homozygous 32-nt deletion similar to the naturally occurring CCR5delta32 allele in the human zygote at the S-phase. Edits were done in the abnormal tripronuclear zygotes unsuitable for IVF. Sixteen tripronuclear zygotes in the S-phase obtained from WT CCR5 donors were injected with an original CRISPR-Cas9 system designed by the authors. Upon injection, the zygotes were transferred into the Blastocyst (COOK) embryo culture medium and cultured for 5 days in a CO2 incubator until blastocysts were formed (approximately 250 cells). Eight zygotes that successfully developed into blastocysts were PCR-genotyped to analyze the efficacy of genome editing. Of 16 zygotes injected with CRISPR-Cas9, only 8 reached the blastocyst stage. PCR genotyping revealed the absence of the initial WT CCR5 variant in 5 of 8 blastocysts (100% CCR5delta32 homozygous). Two had about 3% and one about 20% of WT CCR5 mosaicism. This leads us to conclude that the efficacy of the proposed CRISPR-Cas9 system for the induction of the CCR5delta32 mutation in human embryos is very high producing more than 50% of completely modified embryos.
Published online: 2018-10-11
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.051
Mathematical modeling of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters essential for establishing correct dosing regimens is an alternative to pharmacokinetic studies (PKS) adopted in the clinical setting. The aim of this work was to compare the values of PK parameters for vancomycin obtained in an actual PKS and through MM in postoperative patients with kidney injury. Our prospective study included 61 patients (47 males and 14 females aged 60.59 ± 12.23 years). During PKS, drug concentrations at steady state Сtrough and Cpeak were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by the calculation of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve AUC24. For mathematical modeling, a single-compartment model was employed; PK parameters were estimated using R 3.4.0. The values of Ctrough measured 48 h after the onset of antibiotic therapy during PKS were significantly lower than those predicted by MM (р = 0.004). In a group of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), AUC24 measured at the end of treatment was significantly higher than its value predicted by MM (р = 0.011). The probability of achieving the target AUC24 to MIC ratio of over 400 μg•h /ml is higher in the group of patients with Ctrough = 10–15 μg /ml. Our findings confirm that the use of MM in postoperative patients with renal dysfunction is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring should be used instead.
Published online: 2018-10-05
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.049
Testing the surrounding environment for the presence of biogenic aerosols is an important component of biosecurity in the contemporary world. It is often necessary to collect aerosol samples from large areas in short time, which demands excellent particle collection efficiency, a sufficient incoming air flow rate and a capacity to maintain the viability of the collected samples. Below we present the aerosol sampler with a high volumetric flow rate based on a two-stage particle concentration algorithm and consisting of a virtual impactor and a cyclone concentrator with a recirculating liquid phase. We provide all necessary calculations and an algorithm for modeling impactor parameters. The sampler was tested using dry and liquid formulations dispersed into the particles of 0.5 to 5 μm in diameter. We demonstrate that at volumetric flow rates over 4,000 l/min efficiency of particle collection into the liquid phase at a volume of 10 ml makes over 20% of the total aerosol mass and at volumetric flow rates over 300 l/min this value is over 60%. The proposed device maintains viability of the collected microorganisms. The sampler is portable, with flexible settings for sampling and cleaning, and can be controlled remotely over the network.


Published online: 2018-07-01
DOI: 10.24075/brsmu.2018.021
The use of CRIPSR-Cas systems in genome editing has recently become one of the major research areas. Meanwhile, CAS proteins can be employed to develop novel techniques for molecular diagnostics. Traditional approaches to the identification of microorganisms have a few drawbacks: they are time-consuming (microbiological methods), insufficiently sensitive (immunoassays), expensive or labor-intensive (PCR, sequencing). The aim of this work was to obtain a functionally active Cas13a protein that could be used as a diagnostic tool and study its behavior under different conditions and at various target concentrations. We constructed an expression vector with the cas13a gene of Leptotrichia wadei under the control of T7 promoter. We obtained a functionally active Cas13a RNAse with pre-programmed activity, guide RNA, and a fragment of influenza B RNA sequence serving as a target. The functional activity of Cas13 RNAse was assessed by fluorescence in the reaction mix containing guide RNA, target RNA, and a molecular RNA beacon. The obtained protein Cas13a was able to specifically recognize the target and did not exhibit any non-specific RNAse activity. This study can become a basis for developing a novel, rapid, specific and sensitive method for pathogen detection.
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At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
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In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.
2018-01-25 OUR NEWS
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Since 2018 the journal "Bulletin of RSMU" publishes manuscripts in which financial support for the research is declared, on a fee basis. Regardless of the source of funding, the type of paper and the volume of the text, the publishing fee is 30 thousand rubles. We want to emphasize that we are not talking about advertising publications — we do not publish advertisements. At the same time we are sure that modern science develops much more effectively if access to new research data is free. The journal will continue to work in the open-access format.

2018-01-24 OUR NEWS
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DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is an important tool for organizing the storage of scientific texts. Assigning scientific books or publications with DOIs makes their search much easier for researchers around the world. "Bulletin of RSMU" gave DOIs to all papers published in both language versions of the journal in 2016–2017. We see the first results: regular reports from CrossRef (an international agency that organizes work with identifiers) show that some papers of the authors of the "Bulletin of RSMU" already has several tens of views thanks to DOIs.