NEW ARTICLES

In Russia, for more than 10 years, within the framework of national projects, the activities have been carried out aimed at restructuring of the primary and specialized (including high-tech) medical care, as well as strengthening of primary health care directed at early detection of malignant neoplasms. The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the patient examination rooms for women in improvement of the adjusted cumulative survival of patients with gynecologic malignancies detected actively in 2005–2015 in the Chelyabinsk Region. Using the Population Based Cancer Registry (PBCR) of the Chelyabinsk Region database, the adjusted cumulative survival calculation for patients with cervical cancer (389), uterine corpus cancer (373) and ovarian cancer (161) detected actively in the patient examination rooms of the Chelyabinsk Region (treatment group), as well as for cervical cancer (395), uterine corpus cancer (380) and ovarian cancer (163) detected in patients who sought medical assistance (control group), was performed for the first time. The staging of cervical cancer detected in the examination rooms in 2010–2017 was characterized by the high proportion of I/II stage tumors compared with the rest of patients’ population of the Chelyabinsk Region (an average of 50.8 and 46.1% respectively). For uterine corpus cancer the average proportion was 85.5 and 82.0% respectively, and for ovarian cancers it was 42.0 and 37.4% respectively. Analysis of the PBCR of the Chelyabinsk Region for a 10-year period revealed the 5-year adjusted cumulative survival improvement in the actively detected cervical cancer patients compared to the control group (62.3 and 55.8%) respectively (p = 0.11). In patients with uterine corpus cancer, it was 82.0% for the main group and 70.4% for the control group (p = 0.001). In ovarian cancer patients, no significant differences in the 5-year adjusted cumulative survival were observed (47.5% in the main group, 43.2% in the control group) (p = 0.49). Thus, the patient examination rooms are the effective model of the cancer secondary prevention available in the Chelyabinsk Region.
VIEWS 1
The immune system is subject to all sorts of influences. Pain is one of them, accompanying an organism’s existence. It is essential to be aware of and account for age-related characteristics of the innate immunity in order to adequately assess their dynamics in ontogenesis. The literature is scarce on the changes to the killing activity of neutrophils occurring in newborns in response to acute pain. The aim of this study was to detect potential changes to the phagocytic activity of neutrophils in response to an algogenic stimulus in newborn rats. The experiments were carried out in 3-5-day-old rats. Two groups were formed: the control group and the main group, in which acute pain was modelled. Blood samples were collected 2, 30–60 and 120–180 minutes after exposure to the algogenic stimulus. The microbicidal activity of neutrophils was measured using a spectrophotometric modification of the spontaneous/stimulated nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. In the first hour following pain modeling, the stimulated NBT reduction test demonstrated an increase in the measured parameters from 71.5 to 87.4 a.u. (р < 0.001); the spontaneous NBT reduction test showed an increase from 50.7 to 58.6 a.u. (p < 0.01) 30 to 60 min after exposure. The most pronounced change of the microbicidal activity coefficient was observed 2 min after pain modeling, increasing from 1.40 to 1.72 a.u (р < 0.001). By the end of the experiment, the measured parameters approximated their initial values. During the analysis, we accounted for the fact that the neutrophil response to the algogenic stimulus was unfolding in the setting of microbial colonization occurring in newborns.
VIEWS 4
The lack of simple, rapid diagnostic tests for isoniazid-resistant rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis infection (Hr-TB) can result in low treatment efficacy and further amplification of drug resistance. Based on the clinical data, this study sought to estimate the prevalence of Hr-TB in the general population and characterize the phenotypic susceptibility and genetic determinants of isoniazid resistance in M. tuberculosis strains. Molecular-genetic and culture-based drug susceptibility tests were performed on M. tuberculosis isolates and M. tuberculosis DNA obtained from the patients with pulmonary TB undergoing treatment at the Central Tuberculosis Research Institute between 2011 and 2018. The tests revealed that Hr-TB accounted for 12% of all TB cases in the studied sample. Hr-TB strains were either resistant to isoniazid only (45%) or had multiple resistance to 2–6 anti-TB agents. Resistance to isoniazid was caused by mutations in the katG gene. Based on the literature analysis and our own observations, we emphasize the importance of developing simple molecular drug susceptibility tests capable of detecting simultaneous resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid and the necessity of their translation into clinical practice.
VIEWS 50
Development of modern methods for metabolome assessment, such as gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, allows one to expand the knowledge about the features of lipid metabolism in various clinical conditions. The study was aimed to investigate lipidome features in patients with different probability of family hypercholesterolemia (FH). The study involved 35 patients: 15 men (42.9%) and 20 women (57.1%) with dislipidemia or early cardiovascular diseases which manifested below 55 in men and 60 in women (average age of patients was 49.8 ± 9.96). The family dislipidemia probability was evaluated using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Score. In 10 patients the probability of FH was low (score 1–2), 22 patients had possible FH (score 3–5). Three patients had probable or definite FH (score 6 in 2 patients, score 9 in one patient). Determination of molecular species of sphingomyelins, ceramides and sphingoid bases (sphingosine, sphinganine) as well as galactosylceramide was carried out using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In patients with definite/probable FH the sphingosine level was significantly higher compared with patients having low probability of FH (144.36 ± 107.863 and 50.14 ± 62.409 ng/ml; р = 0.01). In patients with FH, an increase in the proportion of long chain sphingomyelin SM 18 : 1/22 : 0 as well as a significant increase in the level of long chain ceramides with С 20 : 1 and С 22 : 1 was determined. Positive correlation of low-density lipoproteins and sphingosine level (r = 0.344; p = 0.047) together with negative correlation of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), sphinganine (r = –0.52; p = 0.002), and galactosylceramide level (r = –0.56; p = 0.001) were detected. Thus, in patients with high probability of FH the lipidome changes were observed, which could be considered the cardiovascular risk markers.
VIEWS 96

POPULAR ARTICLES

According to the literature data, only 5–20% of post-stroke patients are able to restore the hand motor function completely. Correct goal setting and individual approach to the patient's functional recovery are important. Our study aimed to develop an algorithm of impaired hand motor functioning assessment for post-stroke patients and to determine the principles of the rehabilitation tactics choosing based on the biomechanical analysis. Twenty five patients with hemispheric stroke and 10 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Formal clinical observation scales (Fugl–Meyer Assessment, Ashworth Scale, ARAT) and video motion analysis were used for evaluation of the hand motor function. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the hand paresis severity (mild/moderate and pronounced/severe). Rehabilitation was carried out in both groups, including mechanotherapy, massage and physical therapy. It was revealed that in the 1st group of patients the motor function recovery in the paretic hand was due to movement performance recovery: biomechanical parameters restoration directly correlated with a decrease in the paresis degree according to the Fugl–Meyer Assessment Scale (r = 0.94; p = 0.01). In the 2nd group of patients, the motor function recovery in the paretic hand was due to motor deficit compensation: according to biomechanical analysis, the pathological motor synergies inversely correlated with a decrease in the paresis degree (r = –0.9; p = 0.03). As a result of the study, an algorithm for selecting the patient management tactics based on the baseline clinical indicators was developed.
VIEWS 391
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects both elderly people, for whom it is one of the main causes of disability, and people of active working age and is an urgent clinical and social problem of resistance of pain syndrome to therapy. The disease is characterized by both destruction of intra-articular and paraarticular structures, such as subchondral bone. While OA is an important sign of pathological changes believe the bone marrow edema (BME). This work examines the effect of BME on development osteoarthritis, and therapeutic approaches to the management of patients with OA. The aim of the study was to develop a method of treatment of BME in OA of the knee joint by locally intraosseous injection of autologous thrombotic-rich plasma (PRP) into the edema zone. In this study 17 patients with the diagnosis: Osteoarthritis II-IV Grade. according to the classification of Kellgren–Lawrence, in which areas of local inflammation in the form of BME were detected on MRI in the subchondral zone in accordance with the international classification of WORMS (Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score). The mean age of patients was 41,7 ± 14,3 years, 10 of them were women and 7 men. Patients were treated with autological platelet-rich plasma under x-ray control injected from extra-articular intraosseous access in the area of BME. Evaluation of effectiveness of treatment performed by VAS, WOMAC and KOOS scales, before the introduction of autoplasma, after 1 and 3 months after the start of treatment. Three months after the manipulation, there was a statistically significant decrease in the intensity of inflammatory syndrome: for WOMAC by 17.5%, for KOOS by 19.4% and for VAS by 33,1% (p < 0,01). Thus, the efficiency of intraosseous Infiltration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of patients with OA, accompanied by edema of the bone marrow in the subchondral zone, was proved.
VIEWS 343
Dear researcher!
At the end of 2015, Bulletin of RSMU saw an important change in its typographic design and content. We formulated new editorial policies and established strict ethical standards for submitted manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines of reputable international bodies. As a result, about a quarter of the submitted works have been rejected, the primary reason being the author trying to submit a previously published article. Sometimes authors believe that by making slight changes to the introduction, excluding a few people from the study, performing a new statistical analysis, and thus obtaining totally new results they will turn their old manuscript into a novel work. That is why we would like to talk about scientific integrity, honesty, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism in our special project “Author’s work”.
Richard FEYNMAN Cargo cult science
American physicist Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate, was always very scrupulous about the quality of a research study. During his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in 1974, he talked about scientific integrity and honesty and warned young researchers “not to fool” themselves. A must-read for anyone who believes he/she is a true scientist.
Ivan PAVLOV On the Russian mind
In 1918, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel laureate, delivered two lectures: on the mind in general and the Russian mind in particular; on those mind qualities that determine the success of a research work and on how these qualities are present in the Russian mind. Pavlov's thoughts are an effective vaccine against poor intellectual work.
2019-03-31 OUR NEWS
Update regulations - Fast-Track

Thanks to APC, we have significantly enhanced the work of the editorial board and are finally able to introduce a normal (international) fast track! For articles submitted after 01 Apr 2019, the editors promise to maintain the following time limit: editorial rejection - 3 days after submission, decision - 2 weeks after submission, online publication - 4 weeks after submission.

2018-12-01 OUR NEWS
All articles now a fee-based

In connection with the decrease in University support of the journal, from 2019 the journal will charge for all published articles (except for editorial reviews). Since 2019, the size of the fee will be: if source of funding indicated in the article - USD 700, if not - USD 400. New fee will be charged for publications received after 01/12/2018.